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ОБЗОР ПОДХОДОВ К ИММУНОТЕРАПИИ В ОНКОЛОГИИ

https://doi.org/10.17709/2409-2231-2017-4-3-5

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Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются современные представления об иммунной терапии рака — методике лечения онкологических заболеваний, основанной на иммунологических реакциях организма на появление в нем злокачественных клеток. Данная область активно исследуется в клинической практике в последнее десятилетие, и некоторые терапии уже получили одобрение для применения регуляторными органами после многообещающих результатов клинических исследований 3‑й фазы.

Иммунная терапия основана на противоопухолевом иммунном цикле — каскаде процессов, ответственных за реакцию иммунной системы на опухолевые клетки. Задействованные в нем регуляторные механизмы становятся целями для различных терапий, общая цель которых — восстановить полноценное функционирование цикла и достичь элиминации раковых клеток.

В настоящее время наиболее изучены два вида иммунотерапии — чекпойнт-ингибиторы (checkpoint-inhibitors) и адаптивная клеточная терапия. Чекпойнт-ингибиторы увеличивают активность имеющихся в организме иммунокомпетентных клеток, уменьшая ингибирующее влияние опухолевого микроокружения и самих опухолевых клеток, которое позволило им выйти из-под прессинга иммунитета в ходе развития заболевания. Адаптивная клеточная терапия, в свою очередь, позволяет возместить нехватку активных иммунокомпетентных по отношению к опухоли клеток. Механизмы действия определяют различную эффективность терапий как для разных заболеваний, так и для пациентов «внутри» одного диагноза. Для определения эффективности того или другого лечения до его начала у конкретного пациента необходимо использовать последние достижения прецизионной медицины, основанные на поиске новых биомаркеров и их анализа у каждого пациента в отдельности. Такой подход позволит значительно сократить расходы и сохранить драгоценное время для пациента. 

Об авторах

И. Л. Царев
ФГАОУ ВО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет имени И.М.Сеченова» Минздрава России (Сеченовский Университет)
Россия

клинический ординатор кафедры клинической фармакологии и фармакотерапии ИПО,

115114, Москва, Шлюзовая набережная, д. 6, стр. 4



А. В. Мелерзанов
ФГАОУ ВО «Московский физико-технический институт (государственный университет)»
Россия

к.м.н, декан факультета биологической и медицинской физики,

141701, Московская облаcть, г. Долгопрудный, Институтский пер., д. 9



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Для цитирования:


Царев И.Л., Мелерзанов А.В. ОБЗОР ПОДХОДОВ К ИММУНОТЕРАПИИ В ОНКОЛОГИИ. Исследования и практика в медицине. 2017;4(3):51-65. https://doi.org/10.17709/2409-2231-2017-4-3-5

For citation:


Tsarev I.L., Melerzanov A.V. REVIEW OF APPROACHES TO IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ONCOLOGY. Research and Practical Medicine Journal. 2017;4(3):51-65. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17709/2409-2231-2017-4-3-5

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